Category Archives: Science

Vertical Farming

The need of food to sustain the survival of a nation has turn humanity to innovate the way of propagating and growing our foods. Cultivating crops in urban locations using specific contrived skyscrapers is how Vertical Farming works. It is also known as Vertical Hydroponic System. It is widely used as a modern way of farming amongst country having problem in terms of lack in land, fertile fields for crops to grow and harsh environments.


Over the years, Vertical Farming has meliorated and as most people may not know that as early as 1950, it is already part of the farming industry. It started as a proposal discussed in Rem Koolhaas’s book; Delirious, published in the year 1909.In this proposition, predefines the idea of cultivating crops in an open air building.

Vertical Farming and Its Breakthrough
Vertical farming has inspired not only by farmers but also engineers and architects on helping building a multi-layers of vertical hydroponics structures that greatly improve the space utilization and also making its infrastructure a dainty and organized. In addition, it supports the development of the appearance and for the easy farming protocols.


Examples of Vertical Farming Products
In most vertical farms, they developed the multi-layers of vertical hydroponics system to maximize a facilities area in terms of the type of crops they are growing. Given an example of tomatoes are grown in a rows of vertically supported structure supporting its stems and its heavy weight as it bare fruits. Another example are lettuces, this vegetable is hydroponically grown in a layers of semi drawers which contains the vegetables and allowing then to harvest with ease. Other indoor farms like in Finger Lakes Fresh Greenhouse, traditional structures of filling the crops are the same.

Environment Control and Energy-Saving Technology
Farmers and agriculturist with the help of the modern technology has brought the way of farming to high efficiency and in terms of quality harvest and custom crops. Enabling these people to worry no more about the biohazards and the risks of their crops may have compared to those grown in the traditional way of farming. Minimizing or completely getting rid of the risk of having soilborne diseases, nematodes and weeds in crops are the benefits of vertical farming.

vertical farming

The use of Light Emitting Diodes (LED)also as an artificial source of light is widely used in vertical farming as part of the process of growing the crops. The advantage of using artificial light advances and increasing the rate of harvesting desirable quality and minimal defects due to the use of these lights, the results are as expected and minimizes too much risks and less exposure to sunlight.

Urban areas in reality have this awaiting shortage of farmlands in the coming years. Population will grow triple so as the need for foods. This vivid innovation of farming will give the mankind not just the chances of surviving but the broad strategies of making farming a dependable way of survival. Thus, vertical farming practically produces crops all year-round. It basically allows the expatiation of cities and at the same time will have constant self-sustaining food products for future needs.

Lab Safety Compliance: Three Important Things to Know when Moving your Laboratory to Another Location

Moving your lab to a different location is a daunting task. Besides having highly volatile chemicals and biological samples, there are other machines with moving parts that are either fragile, expensive, or could potentially cause a disaster if not handled properly. You need to label chemicals before you pack and ship them, thoroughly decontaminate your lab, and then use trucks and other vehicles to transport them to the new location. All the while you have to make sure you’re following strict protocols from regulations imposed by the government for them.


Failure to comply with regulations will result in fines ranging from hundreds of thousands to probably even millions of dollars! It could also cause employee injuries as well as property damage plus more fines from a public lawsuit. The idea alone is staggering to even think of, not to mention what it will take to relocate a lab safely and efficiently.

Here are 3 best tips for you to know about when doing something this big:


Regulatory Bodies
Before relocating your lab, you have to check with government agencies that impose regulations for facilities like yours. Due to the nature of your work or business, you’ll have to understand the facility as well as the transportation regulations when moving lab equipment from one place to another. Therefore, besides complying with EPA, IATA, DOT and OSHA; you also need to comply with the local government agencies or regulatory bodies in the area where you operate. To ensure that you will not miss anything while moving your stuff to a different location, contact regulatory agencies and ask for help to keep things in order. You may also want to hire a logistic consultant or specialist to help you be compliant with all the regulations needed for transporting your lab equipment.


Of course, regulatory bodies will only allow you to move your stuff if they’ve issued you a permit. You’ll need to hire movers that have DOT permits to transport chemicals and biotech materials. The type of materials, chemicals and biological agents to be transported will determine the kind of permits you will need.

Here are some of the types of permits that you’ll be needing:

•    DEA Controlled Substances Permit
•    Wastewater Discharge Permit
•    Ionizing Radiation Source Registration
•    RCRA Generator Notification
•    Laboratory Animal Use Permits
•    rDNA Permits
•    Select Agents & Toxins Licenses
•    Flammable Storage Permit
•    Radioactive Materials License


Try to get the landlord with the program so he won’t have complaints after you’ve left the premises. Sometimes landlord tend to be reserved about how squeaky clean they want their property to be and that can cause some serious legal issues as well.


To avoid this, just follow the ANSI guidelines in decontaminating your laboratory. This is a DIY on how to decontaminate your lab efficiently. If you have enough money to hire a contractor that does lab clean up and who adheres to the ANSI guidelines, then hire them and let them explain to the landlord how the cleanup process will be done, so that he will be more comfortable with you leaving.

Aerial and Maritime Navigation

Ever since man became curious about his surroundings so too did his imagination soar and while we were thousands of years away from learning how to fly, we first braved the seas and oceans. It was by instinct when they realized that they had to come up with a standard unit of measurements to determine the length, width, height and volume of certain objects as well as the distance that they had to travel in order to approximate the time it takes to travel from one spot to another. As we look through the history pages we find that our ancient counterparts were innovative and brilliant when they first constructed modes of transportation.


Ancient Egyptian Ship


It is now believed that boating was conceived since pre-historic times as far back as 45,000 years ago and that it was the Pacific Northwestern indigenous peoples that first developed a crude dugout canoes. However, systematic maritime navigation was not achieved until 5,000 years ago in the ancient Mauryan Empire in the Indus river in what is now known as the country of India. Meanwhile in Mesopotamia the ancient Sumerians, Egyptians, Kingdom of Punt, Babylonians, Persians and Pheonecians developed river boating for fishing and trade. Among the system of measurements that they had developed were:


Sumerian Measurements


Sumerian basic length units:

•    Grain which is approximately 0.0025 meter
•    Finger which is approximately 0.015 meter
•    Foot which is approximately 0.333 meter
•    Cubit which is approximately 0.497 meter
•    Step which is approximately 1.000 meter
•    Reed which is approximately 3.000 meters
•    Rod which is approximately 6.000 meters
•    Cord which is approximately 60.000 meters
•    Cable which is approximately 360 meters
•    League which is approximately 10,800 meters




Egyptian basic length units:

•    Royal cubit is roughly 52.5 centimeters
•    Standard cubit is roughly 45 centimeters
•    Remen is roughly 37.5 centimeters
•    Djeser is roughly 30 centimeters
•    Span (large) is roughly 25 centimeters
•    Span (small) is roughly 22.5 centimeters
•    Fist is roughly 10.75 centimeters
•    Hand is roughly 9.38 centimeters
•    Palm is roughly 7.5 centimeters
•    Finger is roughly 1.88 centimeters
•    Khet (rod) is roughly 52.5 meters
•    River measure is roughly 10.5 kilometers


Judging from their skills in formulating these basic length units, it can be said that they had a certain level of sophistication. Modern marine navigation uses various measuring equipment such as radar, sonar and global positioning system (GPS). This allows them to measure their ship’s cruising speed (which is in knots or the metric equivalent of 1 nautical mile), the depth of the water (which can be measured in feet, meters or yards), to determine their exact position on the globe and to determine their relative bearing (distance) from their point of origin and their destination.




Aerial navigation
According to modern history it was the Wright brothers who first braved the skies when they created an aeroplane that flew for about 6 minutes. From that time on aircraft development soared and the whole world used it for commercial passenger transport, research and aerial combat for the military. Initially all aircraft navigation adapted the metric (SI) system, but by the 1960’s there have been major changes in measuring length, distance and cruising speed for aerial navigation. All aircraft uses aviation electronics or avionics to effectively navigate their way through the skies but unlike ships and sea vessels they heavily rely on radar and visibility. Except for the cruising speed of an aircraft all other forms of measurement is done with the metric system. So a pilot may identify his cruising speed at 300 knots (which is literally 345.3 miles per hour) and report his relative bearing at 600 statute miles (basic mile) heading 123 degrees north by north-east. In simple terms it means that the aircraft is traveling at 345.3 miles per hour, 600 miles out from its destination (probably an airstrip or an airport) heading in a direction of north by north-east. Determining the current location of the plane, the speed that it travels and the direction it’s heading is very crucial for its estimated time of arrival (ETA), and the radars and computers in the aircraft’s avionics helps makes it possible. Meanwhile control towers on the ground, guides the aircraft to the runway in order to avoid unwanted mid-air collisions and accidents.